The Historical Security Council is a recreation of the Security Council during a specific time period. The VETO powers present in the Security Council resemble those in the Historical Security Council. Delegates will be challenged to act as countries/organizations from the past and act, propose solutions and debate accordingly.
The Question of the Gulf War
Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait on the 2nd of August 1990. This was after Kuwait had violated their OPEC quota in oil production which dropped the price of oil. Iraq had been in great debt after the Iran-Iraq War ended in 1988 and they claimed that Kuwait had been overproducing oil from Iraqi land and as the price of oil dropped, Iraq remained in debt. The UN produced 11 resolutions condemning Iraq for its actions and calling it to withdraw from Kuwait. Iraq however ignored the 11 resolutions that were passed from the 2nd of August to the 28th of November 1990. On the 29th of November 1990, the UN authorized by all necessary means for countries to stop Iraq if they did not completely withdraw before the 15th of January 1991 in resolution 678. Iraq remained occupying Kuwait and a 42 day war ensued between Iraq and a coalition of 44 countries, led by the USA, starting what we now know as the Gulf War. The war ended on 28 February 1990 when Iraq and the coalition forces signed a cease fire. Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait alarmed the UN Security Council to take action. We will be discussing and recreating resolution 678 as it was during height of political tension due to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. This topic discusses several barriers to development such as how countries must strengthen their relations for economic prosperity, world peace and maintenance of sovereignty and the delegates will spend time diplomatically finding ways to achieve those goals. Foreign intervention was a short term solution for the war but 12 years later the Second Gulf War started so the delegates would not only have to develop short term solutions such as using “all necessary means” to stop the invasion but also to confirm political stability in the region by ensuring that countries do not overproduce oil and ensuring that the countries within the region maintain good diplomatic relations to avoid another war.
The Apartheid in South Africa
The Apartheid was a political and social system in South Africa that was introduced in 1948 while under the white minority rule and lasted until 1994. This was a segregation law that separated races and forced them to live isolate lives. The laws included the banning of interracial marriage, black people carrying special documents to allow them to work and live in particular areas, busses and public services were also separated into coloured and white and so on. In 1976, when thousands of black children in Soweto, a black township outside Johannesburg, demonstrated against the Afrikaans language requirement for black African students, the police opened fire with tear gas and bullets. The protests and government crackdowns that followed, combined with a national economic recession, drew more international attention to South Africa and shattered all illusions that apartheid had brought peace or prosperity to the nation. The United Nations General Assembly had denounced apartheid in 1973, and in 1976 the UN Security Council voted to impose a mandatory embargo on the sale of arms to South Africa. In 1985, the United Kingdom and United States imposed economic sanctions on the country. This topic links directly with the theme “Barriers to Development” as the Apartheid made laws forced the different racial groups to live separately and develop separately, and grossly unequally too. More than this, apartheid was a social system which severely disadvantaged the majority of the population, simply because they did not share the skin colour of the rulers, black people would receive less education and of poorer quality and had difficulty sustaining a suitable job. Many were kept just above destitution because they were ‘non-white’. Delegates will take part in discussing the issue of the Apartheid in South Africa in 1976 and will come up with a resolution to this situation to end the violence that put many South African citizen’s safety at risk.